1. General Douglas MacArthur was Allied commander in the Philippines during World War II. When Japan invaded the Philippines (then an American colony) in December 1941, at about the same time as the attack on Pearl Harbor, MacArthur was forced to retreat to Australia. But he vowed to the Filipino people, in a now famous phrase (at least in the Philippines): “I shall return.” He did return in October 1944, when the war was already going bad for Japan and the Axis forces. From the point of view of Filipino nationalists, MacArthur returned to restore U.S. colonialism after a period under Japanese imperialism. I guess that explains why “MacArthur” has come to be a Tagalog slang word for shit that returns to the toilet bowl after an unsuccessful flushing.

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